- 1 cup Gold Medal® all-purpose flour
- 1/2 tsp. salt
- 1/3 c. plus 1 tablespoon shortening
- 2 to 3 Tbsp. cold water
Heat oven to 475ºF. Mix flour and salt in medium bowl. Cut in shortening, using pastry blender (or pulling 2 table knives through ingredients in opposite directions), until particles are size of small peas. Sprinkle with cold water, 1 tablespoon at a time, tossing with fork until all flour is moistened and pastry almost leaves side of bowl (1 to 2 teaspoons more water can be added if necessary).
Gather pastry into a ball. Shape into flattened round on lightly floured surface. Wrap flattened round of pastry in plastic wrap and refrigerate about 45 minutes or until dough is firm and cold, yet pliable. This allows the shortening to become slightly firm, which helps make the baked pastry more flaky. If refrigerated longer, let pastry soften slightly before rolling.
Roll pastry, using floured rolling pin, into circle 2 inches larger than upside-down 9-inch glass pie plate. Fold pastry into fourths; place in pie plate. Unfold and ease into plate, pressing firmly against bottom and side.
Trim overhanging edge of pastry 1 inch from rim of pie plate. Fold and roll pastry under, even with plate; flute as desired. Prick bottom and side of pastry thoroughly with fork. Bake 8 to 10 minutes or until light brown; cool on wire rack.
Santa’s brother Fred INSISTS on having this dish at the holiday meal. Good thing it’s easy to make!
1 can whole kernel corn (do not drain)
1 can cream-style corn (do not drain)
1 stick of butter (or margarine)
2-3 eggs, slightly beaten
One 8 oz. container of sour cream
One 8 oz. box of Jiffy® corn muffin mix
Directions: Melt butter. Mix in other ingredients then pour into a 13″x 9″ baking dish. Bake 350° F for 45 minutes.
If you love cheese, sprinkle some shredded cheddar cheese atop the dish about 5 minutes before cooking is complete.
This creamy, cheesy potato dish pairs nicely with poultry or beef.
Yield: 8 Servings
- 1 cup Marzetti® Ranch Dressing
- 1 tbsp. butter
- 1 medium onion
- 4 large baking potatoes, peeled and sliced into 1/4-inch slices
- 1/2 cup all-purpose flour
- 1 cup whole milk
- 1/2 tsp. salt
- 1/4 tsp. freshly ground black pepper
- 1-1/4 cup Parmesan cheese
- Pre-heat oven to 375 degrees F.
- In a microwave safe-bowl combine butter and onions. Microwave 3 minutes to soften onions.
- In a large bowl combine all ingredients except ¼ cup Parmesan cheese.
- Lightly mist a 9 x 13 baking dish with non-stick spray. Arrange potatoes in pan. Sprinkle top with remaining Parmesan cheese.
- Bake for 30 minutes or until the potatoes are tender.
Recipe courtesy of Anne Burrell for Food Network Magazine
- 1 head cauliflower, cut into bite-size florets
- 1 pound Jerusalem artichokes, cut into 1-inch dice
- Extra-virgin olive oil
- Kosher salt
- 1 tablespoon cumin seeds, toasted and ground
- 1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper
- Finely chopped fresh chives, for sprinkling
- Preheat the oven to 375 degrees F.
- In a large bowl, combine the cauliflower and Jerusalem artichokes; toss them generously with olive oil and salt.
- In a small bowl, combine the cumin and cayenne and add to the vegetables. Toss well to thoroughly combine.
- Spread the veggies on a baking sheet in one even layer-use two baking sheets, if necessary. Roast 20 minutes, then stir the veggies so they have the chance to brown all over and rotate the pan to ensure even cooking. Roast another 20 minutes, then stir and rotate again.
- Roast the vegetables for an additional 5 to 10 minutes, or until they are brown, tender and smell wonderful-almost like popcorn! If they aren’t lovely and brown, let them continue to roast for another few minutes. Taste and adjust the seasoning, if necessary.
- Remove the veggies from the oven, sprinkle with chives and transfer to a serving dish. Serve immediately.
According to Smithsonian Magazine “fear of the #13 costs American a billion dollars per year in absenteeism, train and plane cancellations, and reduced commerce on the 13th of the month.”
Many hospitals don’t have a room number with 13 in it as well as a 13th floor. The same thing goes for tall buildings. Normally the 13th floor is skipped. Some airlines omit Gate 13.
Hotels rarely have a room number 13. Many hotel guests refuse to stay in Room 13, so rooms are frequently numbered 12, 12A, and 14. Same with floors of buildings and the elevators without a #13 button. Highways sometimes will skip exit 13 altogether also.
Certain ocean liners will be held in dock until after midnight to appease passenger’s fears on Friday the 13th.
Because of increased disappearance reports, the Empire State Building closes 4 hours early on Friday the 13ths.
A superstition that if 13 people sit down to dinner together, all will die within the year. The origin of this legend dates back to the Norse god of mischief – Loki. The saga tells of Loki gate-crashing a party bringing the number of guests to 13. To cut a long saga short, Balder the good was killed. For this reason Norwegians believe that 13 at a dinner party is bad luck.
A “quatrorzieme” is a professional 14th guest hired by the French who had only 13 guests in attendance for dinner, who felt that was unlucky. It is believed that the 14th person will “balance out the luck.”
United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt would never have a 13th guest at a meal, nor would he travel on the 13th day of any month.
Industrialist Henry Ford wouldn’t do business on Friday, the 13th.
There is at least one Friday the 13th in every year, and at the most there are three.
Every month starting on a Sunday, will have a Friday the 13th in it.
There are 13 steps leading to the gallows. And, 13 feet to which the guillotine blade falls.
13 knots in a hangman’s noose.
Hollywood has capitalized on the Friday the 13th superstitions. Four of the 12 movies released were done so on Friday the 13th.
The driver of Princess Diana hit pillar #13 at Place de l’Alma when she was killed in Paris, France.
Some speculate that a fear of the number 13 is the reason we recognize only 12 constellations in the Zodiac, omitting a thirteenth… Ophiuchus ( the Serpent Holder) that, by its location, could be included.
The ancient Hebrews thought 13 was unlucky because the thirteenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet is the letter M, which is the first letter in the word “mavet,” meaning death.
Some believe that 13 is unlucky because it follows 12, which in ancient Babylonia, China, and Rome was considered to be a lucky number associated with completion and perfection.
In numerology, the number twelve is considered the number of completeness, reflected in the twelve months of the year, twelve hours of the clock, twelve gods of Olympus, twelve tribes of Israel, twelve Apostles of Jesus, and twelve signs of the Zodiac, while the number thirteen is considered irregular, transgressing this completeness.
13 people, Christ and his 12 disciples, were in attendance at the last supper. This is where the Christian belief ties in, making Friday a believed unlucky day, as the crucifixtion occurred on a Friday.
Tarot Card number 13 is the Death Card, depicting the Grim Reaper (although it is read as transition or change and not literal death).
Apollo 13, 1970, the 13th mission launched from pad #39 (13 x 3), mission was aborted, after an explosion occurred in the fuel cell of their service module. The rocket had left launching pad at 13:13 CST and the date was April 13th.
The number 13 is considered lucky by Italians
Dan Marino, former NFL quarterback of the Miami Dolphins, is considered one of the greats QBs by some, and he wore the number 13.
Taylor Swift considers 13 her lucky number and used to paint 13 on her hand. She was born on Dec 13th, her lucky number’s 13, she turned 13 on a friday the 13th, and she turned 24 on Friday December 13, 2013.
There were 13 original colonies.
E Pluribus Unum has 13 letters.
The US Seal has 13 stars, bars, feathers in the eagle’s tail, 13 bars in one claw, 13 olive branches in the other.
On the USA Dollar Bill, there are 13 steps on the pyramid, 13 bars on the shield, and 13 leaves on the olive branch.
That Extra Roll and/or Donut…
* Years ago, London bakers were subject to harsh penalties if they were caught selling bread in what was called short weight. The bakers would add an extra loaf to each dozen to be sure the sale met the minimum weight requirement. They avoided the word thirteen and the process of adding an extra loaf became known as the “baker’s dozen.”
*A baker’s dozen consists of 13 for a reason! So the story goes a witch near Albany, NY demanded 13 items every time she came in to a particular bakery, and one day the old baker could not afford her extra biscuit. She sneered some strange words at the man, and he suffered terrible luck from then on, until he brought her another 13 rolls. After that life was once again easy for the baker and word spread around town. The custom is still sometimes practiced today.
By Bruce McClure in
BLOGS | HUMAN WORLD on Mar 13, 2015
Remembrance Day (also known as Poppy Day or Armistice Day) is a memorial day observed in Commonwealth countries since the end of World War I to remember the members of their armed forces who have died in the line of duty. This day, or alternative dates, are also recognised as special days for war remembrances in many non-Commonwealth countries.
Remembrance Day is observed on 11 November to recall the end of hostilities of World War I on that date in 1918. Hostilities formally ended “at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month,” in accordance with the Armistice, signed by representatives of Germany and the Entente between 5:12 and 5:20 that morning. (“At the 11th hour” refers to the passing of the 11th hour, or 11:00 am.) World War I officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919.
The Initial or Very First Armistice Day was held at Buckingham Palace commencing with King George V hosting a “Banquet in Honour of the President of the French Republic” during the evening hours of 10 November 1919. The first official Armistice Day was subsequently held on the grounds of Buckingham Palace on the morning of 11 November 1919. This would set the trend for a day of Remembrance for decades to come.
The red remembrance poppy has become a familiar emblem of Remembrance Day due to the poem “In Flanders Fields.” These poppies bloomed across some of the worst battlefields of Flanders in World War I, their brilliant red colour an appropriate symbol for the blood spilled in the war.
All Saints’ Day (in the Roman Catholic Church officially the Solemnity of All Saints and also called All Hallows or Hallowmas), often shortened to All Saints, is a solemnity celebrated on 1 November by parts of Western Christianity, and on the first Sunday after Pentecost in Eastern Christianity, in honor of all the saints, known and unknown.
In Western Christian theology, the day commemorates all those who have attained the beatific vision in Heaven. It is a national holiday in many historically Catholic countries. In the Roman Catholic Church, the next day, All Souls’ Day, specifically commemorates the departed faithful who have not yet been purified and reached heaven. Catholics celebrate All Saints’ Day and All Souls’ Day in the fundamental belief that there is a prayerful spiritual communion between those in the state of grace who have died and are either being purified in purgatory or are in heaven (the ‘church penitent’ and the ‘church triumphant’, respectively), and the ‘church militant’ who are the living. Other Christian traditions define, remember and respond to the saints in different ways.
In the East
Eastern Orthodox icon of All Saints. Christ is enthroned in heaven surrounded by the ranks of angels and saints. At the bottom is Paradise with the bosom of Abraham (left), and the Good Thief (right).
Eastern Christians of the Byzantine Tradition follow the earlier tradition of commemorating all saints collectively on the first Sunday after Pentecost, All Saints’ Sunday.
The feast of All Saints achieved great prominence in the ninth century, in the reign of the Byzantine Emperor, Leo VI “the Wise” (886.911). His wife, Empress Theophany commemorated on December 16.lived a devout life. After her death in 893, her husband built a church, intending to dedicate it to her. When he was forbidden to do so, he decided to dedicate it to “All Saints,” so that if his wife were in fact one of the righteous, she would also be honored whenever the feast was celebrated. According to tradition, it was Leo who expanded the feast from a commemoration of All Martyrs to a general commemoration of All Saints, whether martyrs or not.
The Sunday following All Saints’ Sunday, the second Sunday after Pentecost, is set aside as a commemoration of all locally venerated saints, such as “All Saints of America”, “All Saints of Mount Athos”, etc. The third Sunday after Pentecost may be observed for even more localized saints, such as “All Saints of St. Petersburg”, or for saints of a particular type, such as “New Martyrs of the Turkish Yoke.”
In addition to the Sundays mentioned above, Saturdays throughout the year are days for general commemoration of all saints, and special hymns to all saints are chanted from the Octoechos.
The origin of the festival of All Saints celebrated in the West dates to May 13, 609 or 610, when Pope Boniface IV consecrated the Pantheon at Rome to the Blessed Virgin and all the martyrs; the feast of the dedicatio Sanctae Mariae ad Martyres has been celebrated at Rome ever since. There is evidence that from the fifth through the seventh centuries there existed in certain places and at sporadic intervals a feast date 13 May to celebrate the holy martyrs. The origin of All Saints’ Day cannot be traced with certainty, and it has been observed on various days in different places. However, there are some who maintain the belief that it has origins in the pagan observation of 13 May, the Feast of the Lemures, in which the malevolent and restless spirits of the dead were propitiated. Liturgiologists base the idea that this Lemuria festival was the origin of that of All Saints on their identical dates and on the similar theme of “all the dead”.
The feast of All Saints, on its current date, is traced to the foundation by Pope Gregory III (731-741) of an oratory in St. Peter’s for the relics “of the holy apostles and of all saints, martyrs and confessors, of all the just made perfect who are at rest throughout the world”, with the day moved to 1 November and the 13 May feast suppressed.
This usually fell within a few weeks of the Celtic holiday of Samhain, which had a theme similar to the Roman festival of Lemuria, but which was also a harvest festival. The Irish, having celebrated Samhain in the past, did not celebrate All Hallows Day on this November 1 date, as extant historical documents attest that the celebration in Ireland took place in the spring: “…the Felire of Oengus and the Martyrology of Tallaght prove that the early medieval churches [in Ireland] celebrated the feast of All Saints on April 20.”
A November festival of all the saints was already widely celebrated on November 1 in the days of Charlemagne. It was made a day of obligation throughout the Frankish empire in 835, by a decree of Louis the Pious, issued “at the instance of Pope Gregory IV and with the assent of all the bishops”, which confirmed its celebration on November 1. The octave was added by Pope Sixtus IV (1471.1484).
The festival was retained after the Reformation in the calendar of the Anglican Church and in many Lutheran churches. In the Lutheran churches, such as the Church of Sweden, it assumes a role of general commemoration of the dead. In the Swedish calendar, the observance takes place on the Saturday between October 31 and November 6. In many Lutheran Churches, it is moved to the first Sunday of November. It is also celebrated by other Protestants of the English tradition, such as the United Church of Canada, the Methodist churches, and the Wesleyan Church.
Protestants generally regard all true Christian believers as saints and if they observe All Saints Day at all they use it to remember all Christians both past and present. In the United Methodist Church, All Saints’ Day is celebrated on the first Sunday in November. It is held, not only to remember Saints, but also to remember all those that have died that were members of the local church congregation. In some congregations, a candle is lit by the Acolyte as each person’s name is called out by the clergy. Prayers and responsive readings may accompany the event. Often, the names of those who have died in the past year are afixed to a memorial plaque.
In many Lutheran churches, All Saints’ Day and Reformation Day are observed concurrently on the Sunday before or after those dates, given Reformation Day is observed in Protestant Churches on October 31. Typically, Martin Luther’s A Mighty Fortress is Our God is sung during the service. Besides discussing Luther’s role in the Protestant Reformation, some recognition of the prominent early leaders of the Reformed tradition, such as John Calvin and John Knox, occurs. The observance of Reformation Day may be immediately followed by a reading of those members of the local congregation who have died in the past year in observance of All Saints’ Day. Otherwise, the recognition of deceased church members occurs at another designated portion of the service.
Roman Catholic Obligation
In the Roman Catholic Church, All Saints’ Day is a Holy Day of Obligation in many (but not all) countries, meaning going to Mass on the date is required unless one has a good reason to be excused from that obligation, such as illness. However, in a number of countries that do list All Saints’ Day as a Holy Day of Obligation, including England & Wales, the solemnity of All Saints’ Day is transferred to the adjacent Sunday if 1 November falls on a Monday or a Saturday, while in the same circumstances in the United States the Solemnity is still celebrated on November 1 but the obligation to attend Mass is abrogated.
All Saints’ Day at a cemetery in O.wi.cim, Poland, 1 November 1984
In Portugal, Spain, and Mexico, offerings (Portuguese: oferendas, Spanish: ofrendas) are made on this day. In Spain, the play Don Juan Tenorio is traditionally performed. In Mexico, All Saints Day coincides with the celebration of “Díde los Inocentes” (Day of the Innocents), the first day of the Day of the Dead (Dia de los Muertos) celebration, honoring deceased children and infants. In Portugal, children celebrate the Pãpor-Deus tradition, and go door to door where they receive cakes, nuts and pomegranates. This only occurs in some areas around Lisbon.
In Austria, Belgium, France, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal, Spain, and American Cities such as New Orleans people take flowers to the graves of dead relatives.
In Poland, the Czech Republic, Sweden, Finland, Slovenia, Slovakia, Lithuania, Croatia, Austria, Romania, Moldova, Hungary and Catholic parts of Germany, the tradition is to light candles and visit the graves of deceased relatives.
In the Philippines, this day, called “Undas”, “Todos los Santos” (literally “All Saints”), and sometimes “Araw ng mga Patay” (approximately “Day of the dead”) is observed as All Souls’ Day. This day and the one before and one after it is spent visiting the graves of deceased relatives, where prayers and flowers are offered, candles are lit and the graves themselves are cleaned, repaired and repainted.
In English-speaking countries, the festival is traditionally celebrated with the hymn “For All the Saints” by William Walsham How. The most familiar tune for this hymn is Sine Nomine by Ralph Vaughan Williams. Catholics generally celebrate with a day of rest consisting of avoiding physical exertion.
- “Hallows” meaning “saints,” and “mas” meaning “Mass”; the preceding evening (Halloween) is the “Vigil or Eve of All Hallows”.
- The date in Vita Euthymii, not printed until 1888 “makes it seem practically (though not absolutely) certain that she died on 10 Nov. 893”. Glanville Downey, “The Church of All Saints (Church of St. Theophano) near the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 9/10, (1956:301-305).
- Downey 1956.
- C. Smith The New Catholic Encyclopedia 1967: s.v. “Feast of All Saints”, p. 318.
- For example, Violet Alford (“The Cat Saint”, Folklore 52.3 [September 1941:161-183] p. 181 note 56) observes that “Saints were often confounded with the Lares or Dead. Repasts for both were prepared in early Christian times, and All Saints’ Day was transferred in 835 to November 1st from one of the days in May which were the old Lemuralia”; Alford notes Pierre Saintyves, Les saints successeurs des dieux, Paris 1906 (sic, i.e. 1907).
- “All Saints Day,” The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd edition, ed. E. A. Livingstone (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), 41-42; The New Catholic Encyclopedia, eo.loc.
- Hutton, Ronald (1996). Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. New York: Oxford Paperbacks. ISBN 0-19-285448-8.
- The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York, Robert Appleton Company, 1907), s.v. “All Saints’ Day” (see External links, below).
- Religions in Canada
- [dead link]
- “New Orleans Saints FAQ”, NewOrleansSaints.com, March 2010, NOLA-S-FAQ.