History of Thanksgiving in America

n 1621, the Plymouth colonists and Wampanoag Indians shared an autumn harvest feast that is acknowledged today as one of the first Thanksgiving celebrations in the colonies. For more than two centuries, days of thanksgiving were celebrated by individual colonies and states. It wasn’t until 1863, in the midst of the Civil War, that President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed a national Thanksgiving Day to be held each November.

THANKSGIVING AT PLYMOUTH
In September 1620, a small ship called the Mayflower left Plymouth, England, carrying 102 passengers—an assortment of religious separatists seeking a new home where they could freely practice their faith and other individuals lured by the promise of prosperity and land ownership in the New World. After a treacherous and uncomfortable crossing that lasted 66 days, they dropped anchor near the tip of Cape Cod, far north of their intended destination at the mouth of the Hudson River. One month later, the Mayflower crossed Massachusetts Bay, where the Pilgrims, as they are now commonly known, began the work of establishing a village at Plymouth.

Did You Know?
Lobster, seal and swans were on the Pilgrims’ menu.

Squanto

Squanto a.k.a. Tisquantum

Throughout that first brutal winter, most of the colonists remained on board the ship, where they suffered from exposure, scurvy and outbreaks of contagious disease. Only half of the Mayflower’s original passengers and crew lived to see their first New England spring. In March, the remaining settlers moved ashore, where they received an astonishing visit from an Abenaki Indian who greeted them in English. Several days later, he returned with another Native American, Squanto, a member of the Pawtuxet tribe who had been kidnapped by an English sea captain and sold into slavery before escaping to London and returning to his homeland on an exploratory expedition. Squanto taught the Pilgrims, weakened by malnutrition and illness, how to cultivate corn, extract sap from maple trees, catch fish in the rivers and avoid poisonous plants. He also helped the settlers forge an alliance with the Wampanoag, a local tribe, which would endure for more than 50 years and tragically remains one of the sole examples of harmony between European colonists and Native Americans.

In November 1621, after the Pilgrims’ first corn harvest proved successful, Governor William Bradford organized a celebratory feast and invited a group of the fledgling colony’s Native American allies, including the Wampanoag chief Massasoit. Now remembered as American’s “first Thanksgiving”—although the Pilgrims themselves may not have used the term at the time—the festival lasted for three days. While no record exists of the historic banquet’s exact menu, the Pilgrim chronicler Edward Winslow wrote in his journal that Governor Bradford sent four men on a “fowling” mission in preparation for the event, and that the Wampanoag guests arrived bearing five deer. Historians have suggested that many of the dishes were likely prepared using traditional Native American spices and cooking methods. Because the Pilgrims had no oven and the Mayflower’s sugar supply had dwindled by the fall of 1621, the meal did not feature pies, cakes or other desserts, which have become a hallmark of contemporary celebrations.

THANKSGIVING BECOMES AN OFFICIAL HOLIDAY
Pilgrims held their second Thanksgiving celebration in 1623 to mark the end of a long drought that had threatened the year’s harvest and prompted Governor Bradford to call for a religious fast. Days of fasting and thanksgiving on an annual or occasional basis became common practice in other New England settlements as well. During the American Revolution, the Continental Congress designated one or more days of thanksgiving a year, and in 1789 George Washington issued the first Thanksgiving proclamation by the national government of the United States; in it, he called upon Americans to express their gratitude for the happy conclusion to the country’s war of independence and the successful ratification of the U.S. Constitution. His successors John Adams and James Madison also designated days of thanks during their presidencies.

In 1817, New York became the first of several states to officially adopt an annual Thanksgiving holiday; each celebrated it on a different day, however, and the American South remained largely unfamiliar with the tradition. In 1827, the noted magazine editor and prolific writer Sarah Josepha Hale—author, among countless other things, of the nursery rhyme “Mary Had a Little Lamb”—launched a campaign to establish Thanksgiving as a national holiday. For 36 years, she published numerous editorials and sent scores of letters to governors, senators, presidents and other politicians. Abraham Lincoln finally heeded her request in 1863, at the height of the Civil War, in a proclamation entreating all Americans to ask God to “commend to his tender care all those who have become widows, orphans, mourners or sufferers in the lamentable civil strife” and to “heal the wounds of the nation.” He scheduled Thanksgiving for the final Thursday in November, and it was celebrated on that day every year until 1939, when Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the holiday up a week in an attempt to spur retail sales during the Great Depression. Roosevelt’s plan, known derisively as Franksgiving, was met with passionate opposition, and in 1941 the president reluctantly signed a bill making Thanksgiving the fourth Thursday in November.

THANKSGIVING TRADITIONS
In many American households, the Thanksgiving celebration has lost much of its original religious significance; instead, it now centers on cooking and sharing a bountiful meal with family and friends. Turkey, a Thanksgiving staple so ubiquitous it has become all but synonymous with the holiday, may or may not have been on offer when the Pilgrims hosted the inaugural feast in 1621. Today, however, nearly 90 percent of Americans eat the bird—whether roasted, baked or deep-fried—on Thanksgiving, according to the National Turkey Federation. Other traditional foods include stuffing, mashed potatoes, cranberry sauce and pumpkin pie. Volunteering is a common Thanksgiving Day activity, and communities often hold food drives and host free dinners for the less fortunate.

Parades have also become an integral part of the holiday in cities and towns across the United States. Presented by Macy’s department store since 1924, New York City’s Thanksgiving Day parade is the largest and most famous, attracting some 2 to 3 million spectators along its 2.5-mile route and drawing an enormous television audience. It typically features marching bands, performers, elaborate floats conveying various celebrities and giant balloons shaped like cartoon characters.

U.S. President Harry Truman "pardons" a turkey from Thanksgiving dinner

Pictured here on Nov. 16, 1949, President Harry Truman reportedly was the first U.S. President to “pardon” a turkey from Thanksgiving Dinner. (AP Photo)

Beginning in the mid-20th century and perhaps even earlier, the president of the United States has “pardoned” one or two Thanksgiving turkeys each year, sparing the birds from slaughter and sending them to a farm for retirement. A number of U.S. governors also perform the annual turkey pardoning ritual.

THANKSGIVING CONTROVERSIES
For some scholars, the jury is still out on whether the feast at Plymouth really constituted the first Thanksgiving in the United States. Indeed, historians have recorded other ceremonies of thanks among European settlers in North America that predate the Pilgrims’ celebration. In 1565, for instance, the Spanish explorer Pedro Menéndez de Avilé invited members of the local Timucua tribe to a dinner in St. Augustine, Florida, after holding a mass to thank God for his crew’s safe arrival. On December 4, 1619, when 38 British settlers reached a site known as Berkeley Hundred on the banks of Virginia’s James River, they read a proclamation designating the date as “a day of thanksgiving to Almighty God.”

Some Native Americans and others take issue with how the Thanksgiving story is presented to the American public, and especially to schoolchildren. In their view, the traditional narrative paints a deceptively sunny portrait of relations between the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag people, masking the long and bloody history of conflict between Native Americans and European settlers that resulted in the deaths of millions. Since 1970, protesters have gathered on the day designated as Thanksgiving at the top of Cole’s Hill, which overlooks Plymouth Rock, to commemorate a “National Day of Mourning.” Similar events are held in other parts of the country.

National Day of Mourning plaque

Since Thanksgiving Day 1970, the town of Plymouth, MA has hosted this event where Native Americans demonstrate the events following the Pilgrim’s arrival.

THANKSGIVING’S ANCIENT ORIGINS
Although the American concept of Thanksgiving developed in the colonies of New England, its roots can be traced back to the other side of the Atlantic. Both the Separatists who came over on the Mayflower and the Puritans who arrived soon after brought with them a tradition of providential holidays—days of fasting during difficult or pivotal moments and days of feasting and celebration to thank God in times of plenty.

As an annual celebration of the harvest and its bounty, moreover, Thanksgiving falls under a category of festivals that spans cultures, continents and millennia. In ancient times, the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans feasted and paid tribute to their gods after the fall harvest. Thanksgiving also bears a resemblance to the ancient Jewish harvest festival of Sukkot. Finally, historians have noted that Native Americans had a rich tradition of commemorating the fall harvest with feasting and merrymaking long before Europeans set foot on their shores.

Hot and Saucy Cocktail Meatballs

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Photo by Betty Crocker©

Yield: 6 Servings

  • Ingredients:
    2 pounds lean ground beef
    1 cup Progresso™ dry bread crumbs (any flavor)
    2/3 cup finely chopped onion
    1/2 cup milk
    2 tablespoons chopped fresh parsley
    2 teaspoons salt
    1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
    1/8 teaspoon pepper
    2 eggs
    2 bottles (12 ounces each) chili sauce
    2 jars (10 ounces each) grape jelly

 

Directions:

  1. Heat oven to 400°F. Stir together all ingredients except chili sauce and jelly. Shape into 1-inch meatballs. Place in ungreased retangular pan, 13x9x2 inches, or on rack in broiler pan.
  2. Bake uncovered about 20 minutes or until no longer pink in center and juice is clear.
  3. Heat chili sauce and jelly in Dutch oven over medium heat, stirring contantly, until jelly is melted. Stir in meatballs until coated. Simmer uncovered 30 minutes.
  4. Serve hot with toothpicks.

Slow Cooker Swiss Steak

Yield: 6 Servings

Slow Cooker Swiss Steak

Photo by Taste of Home©

Ingredients:

  • 3/4 cup all-purpose flour
  • 1 teaspoon pepper
  • 1/4 teaspoon salt
  • 2 to 2-1/2 pounds boneless beef top round steak
  • 1 to 2 tablespoons butter
  • 1 can (10-3/4 ounces) condensed cream of mushroom soup, undiluted
  • 1-1/3 cups water
  • 1 cup sliced celery, optional
  • 1/2 cup chopped onion
  • 1 to 3 teaspoons beef bouillon granules
  • 1/2 teaspoon minced garlic

 

Directions: 

  1. In a shallow bowl, combine the flour, pepper and salt. Cut steak into six serving-size pieces; dredge in flour mixture.
  2. In a large skillet, brown steak in butter. Transfer to a 3-qt. slow cooker. Combine the remaining ingredients; pour over steak. Cover and cook on low for 8-9 hours or until meat is tender.

 

 

Nutritional Facts
1 each: 313 calories, 9g fat (4g saturated fat), 92mg cholesterol, 666mg sodium, 18g carbohydrate (2g sugars, 2g fiber), 37g protein.

 
Originally published as Slow-Cooked Swiss Steak in Quick Cooking January/February 1999, p7

Slow-Cooked Pork Chops & Scalloped Potatoes

Yield: 6 Servings

Slow cooked pork chops and scalloped potatoes

Photo by Taste of Home©

Ingredients:

  • 4 medium potatoes, peeled and thinly sliced
  • 6 bone-in pork loin chops (7 ounces each)
  • 1 tablespoon canola oil
  • 2 large onions, sliced and separated into rings
  • 2 teaspoons butter
  • 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour
  • 1/4 teaspoon salt
  • 1/4 teaspoon pepper
  • 1 can (14-1/2 ounces) reduced-sodium chicken broth
  • 1 cup fat-free milk

 

Directions:

  1. Place potatoes in a 5-or 6-qt. slow cooker coated with cooking spray. In a large nonstick skillet, brown pork chops in oil in batches.
  2. Place chops over potatoes. Saute onions in drippings until tender; place over chops. Melt butter in skillet. Combine the flour, salt, pepper and broth until smooth. Stir into pan. Add milk. Bring to a boil; cook and stir for 2 minutes or until thickened.
  3. Pour sauce over onions. Cover and cook on low for 8-10 hours or until pork is tender. Skim fat and thicken cooking juices if desired.

 

Nutritional Facts
1 each: 372 calories, 12g fat (4g saturated fat), 90mg cholesterol, 389mg sodium, 29g carbohydrate (6g sugars, 2g fiber), 35g protein. Diabetic Exchanges: 4 lean meat, 2 starch, 1 fat.
Originally published as Pork Chops with Scalloped Potatoes in Healthy Cooking October/November 2010, p57

Butterfinger® Cookies Recipe

Yield: 48 Servings/4 dozen

Butterfinger Cookies

Photo by Taste of Home©

Ingredients:

  • 1/2 cup butter, softened
  • 3/4 cup sugar
  • 2/3 cup packed brown sugar
  • 2 egg whites
  • 1-1/4 cups chunky peanut butter
  • 1-1/2 teaspoons vanilla extract
  • 1 cup all-purpose flour
  • 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
  • 1/4 teaspoon salt
  • 5 Butterfinger candy bars (2.1 ounces each), chopped

 

Directions:

  1. In a large bowl, cream butter and sugars until light and fluffy. Beat in egg whites. Beat in peanut butter and vanilla. Combine the flour, baking soda and salt; gradually add to creamed mixture. Stir in candy bars.
  2. Shape into 1-1/2-in. balls and place 2 in. apart on greased baking sheets.
  3. Bake at 350° for 10-12 minutes or until golden brown. Remove to wire racks to cool.

 

Nutritional Facts
1 each: 96 calories, 5g fat (2g saturated fat), 5mg cholesterol, 83mg sodium, 10g carbohydrate (7g sugars, 1g fiber), 2g protein.

 
Originally published as Butterfinger Cookies in Taste of Home June/July 1998, p67

 

Candy Bar Cheesecake Brownies Recipe

Yield: 24 Servings/2 Dozen

Candy Bar Cheesecake Brownies

Photo by Taste of Home©

Ingredients:

  • 1 cup butter, cubed
  • 2 cups sugar
  • 1/3 cup baking cocoa
  • 2 teaspoons vanilla extract
  • 4 large eggs
  • 2 cups all-purpose flour
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 cup chopped assorted miniature candy bars (about 18)

 

TOPPING:

  • 1 package (8 ounces) cream cheese, softened
  • 1/3 cup sugar
  • 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract
  • 1 large egg
  • 1/2 cup chopped assorted miniature candy bars (about 10)

 

Directions:

  1. Preheat oven to 350°. Grease a 13×9-in. baking pan. In a microwave, melt butter in a large microwave-safe bowl. Stir in sugar, cocoa and vanilla. Add eggs, one at a time, whisking to blend after each addition. Add flour and salt; stir just until combined. Stir in 1 cup candy bars.
  2. Spread into prepared pan. In a large bowl, beat cream cheese and sugar until smooth. Beat in vanilla. Add egg; beat on low speed just until blended. Drop by tablespoonfuls over batter. Cut through batter with a knife to swirl. Sprinkle with 1/2 cup candy bars.
  3. Bake 30-35 minutes or until filling in center is almost set. Cool 1 hour in pan on a wire rack. Refrigerate at least 2 hours. Cut into bars.

 

Nutritional Facts
1 brownie: 282 calories, 14g fat (8g saturated fat), 71mg cholesterol, 233mg sodium, 36g carbohydrate (25g sugars, 1g fiber), 4g protein.
Originally published as Candy Bar Cheesecake Brownies in Halloween Bookazine 2015 2015, p92